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Summer 02 - Summer 03

Summer 2002
Spring 2003
Summer 2003


Summer - 2002

Title: Early intervention: Addressing the family needs

Authors: Edwards, M. A., Millard, P., Paskac, L., Sandone, R., Stone, J., & Wisniewski, P.A.

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to identify factors that encourage or inhibit family-centered practice in the occupational therapy intervention process. Qualitative paradigm using grounded theory methodology was utilized to gather and analyze data. Participants were selected by convenience method including six families and four occupational therapists. Separate data analysis were conducted for the families and occupational therapists. Data analysis from the family interviews identified six categories which included education, communication, relationship, parental roles, follow through, and scheduling. With further analysis two central themes of time and support were extracted from these categories. The analysis of the occupational therapists interviews revealed six categories which included education, communication, relationship, sibling/family participation, follow through, and empowerment. The central themes emerging from these categories are time and natural routine. The themes obtained from the families and occupational therapists were then compared to identify a core concept. The family individuality emerged as the core concept. Viewing families as a unique entity and identifying their strengths and needs is necessary to assist occupational therapists in providing the most effective family-centered occupational therapy.

Year: August, 2002

Chair/Reader: Beth Pfeiffer: Ellen McLaughlin

Title: Adolescent Leisure Interest: A Study of Geographic Variances

Authors: Ebbert, B., Fairfield, K., Juern-McKaughan, S. & White, J.

Abstract: The leisure activities that adolescents participate in influence their development as adults (Csikszentmihalyi and Larson, 1984; Scott & Willits, 1998) and the development of their occupational performance patterns. The purpose of this study was to determine, from a qualitative analysis of the adolescent’s perspective, how living in a specific geographic region influences leisure options and choices. A sample of 16 adolescents from the inner city, suburb, small town and rural regions completed activity configurations and participated in an interview. Data was analyzed using the constant comparative method for thematic analysis (Bailey, 1997). The three themes that emerged were a) adolescent leisure choices are varied, b) where you live influences leisure choices both positively and negatively, and c) families influence leisure interests and options. The adolescents’ perspectives on leisure are analyzed for similarities and differences based on geographic region. This information is useful to occupational therapists in understanding the motivations behind leisure behaviors as well as in terms of potential influences on occupational therapy assessment and intervention.

Year: May, 2002

Chair/Reader: Ellen McLaughlin, Tom Swartwood

Publication/Presentation: Presented as: Ebbert, B., Fairfield, K., Juern-McKaughan, S., White, J., & McLaughlin, E. Adolescent Leisure Interests: A Study of Georgraphic Variances. Paper presentation at the 2003 AOTA Annual Conference, Washington, D.C.

Title: An Assessment of a Falls Prevention Protocol for the Well Elderly Population

Authors: Breon, K. R., Carroll, M., Pogorzelski, C. M., Romaine, E., Schlegel, J. M.

Abstract: Objective. The study investigated the use of a protocol that will allow the
assessment of a falls prevention program. Method. Recruitment posters and sign-up sheets were placed in the common areas of an independent living facility where participants agreed to work with the researchers. Researchers met with participants at informational meeting one month prior to educational seminar. Researchers introduced themselves at this meeting, discussed expectations of participants, and had participants complete informed consent forms and personal data sheets. Participants were given calendar to record falls experienced during the next month (pre-test data). An Education seminar followed one month later. At this time mini mental assessments were also completed to ensure proper participant requirements. Participants were educated on risk factors for falls and the benefits of exercise. Participants were given four pre-stamped
calendars to record daily falls and exercise participation as well as instructed to mail the corresponding month's calendar back to the investigators at the end of each month.
Results. The results of this pilot study show that the techniques and means of assessment used in this falls prevention program were effective in measuring and reducing the number of falls among the well elderly. A decrease in falls for the entire group of nearly 1/3 was observed during the 4 months following the falls prevention program, suggesting a carryover of the material presented. Conclusion. The results support the use of and need for falls prevention programs. Falls prevention programs can be successful and elderly individuals are interested in participating in such programs.

Year: August, 2002

Chair/Reader: Denis Anson, Joe Cipriani

Title: Curricula Influence on Performance of the National Certification Exam

Authors: Stump, K., Steinmetz, K., Archey, C., Milot, J. & Fehrenbach, C.

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between specific features of occupational therapy curricula mandated by the ACOTE essentials and performance on the sub-scores of the national registration exam. For this study, data was gathered by sending a questionnaire to occupational therapy schools across the United States. The results of this study were based on a 28.7% return rate. The established value of p<0.05 was selected to be significant correlation. Finally, several significant negative correlations are reported and discussed.

Year: August, 2002

Chair/Reader: Denis Anson, Bob Alder

Title: Barriers for Transition into the Workforce for Work Program Clients: An Analysis According to the Model of Human Occupation

Authors: Browning, D. D., Campbell, P. A., Doherty, J. L.,.Kelleher, S., Shelton, C, & Waverka, E.

Abstract: Welfare-to-work has been identified as one of the top ten emerging area of practice by the American Occupational Therapy Association (Johansson, 2000). The purpose of this study was to explore through the perspective of both clients and professionals barriers that individuals face in their transition to the workplace. The Model of Human Occupation (MOHO) was used as a framework to formulate interview questions and to analyze data under the subsystems of Volition, Habituation, and Mind-Brain-Body Performance. Data was gathered through interviews with 6 professionals and 6 clients associated with a workforce development program. It was found that the identified barriers, from both professionals and clients, did correspond to the three MOHO subsystems. Two other barrier categories were also identified and classified in the data analysis as “Transportation” and “The System.” The study suggests that clients face a multitude of barriers upon transition into the workforce. Occupational therapists can provide clients and other professionals who work with clients in the process of transitioning to the workforce by exploring occupations, teaching life management skills, and the development of assessments, interventions, and effective individualized programs.

Year: August, 2003

Chair/Reader: Ellen McLaughlin, Kathy Goin, Gwen Bartolacci

Title: The Effects of Music as an Augmentation to Paraffin Therapy in Individuals with Rheumatoid Arthritis

Authors: Chamberlin, L., O’Dowd, C., Smith, N., Williams, A. M. & Anson, D.

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of music as an augmentation to paraffin wax therapy to individuals with advanced rheumatoid arthritis in their hands. Method: A quasi-experimental crossover design was used for this study. Ten persons over the age of 65 with an adult onset of rheumatoid arthritis for one year or more were selected for this study. Participants received three treatments with paraffin only and three with paraffin in conjunction with relaxing music. Pre and post test measurements were taken which included range of motion of the MCP, PIP and DIP, times it took the participant to complete a sentence from the writing subtest of the Jebson Taylor Hand Function Test, and pain rating during the writing task. Results: A significant decrease in writing times were noted as well as a significant decrease in pain during the writing tasks as a result of the addition of music to the paraffin wax treatment. Music as an augmentation to paraffin therapy did not result in significant changes for range of motion. Conclusion: Music as an augmentation to paraffin therapy in individuals with rheumatoid arthritis was found to have a significant impact on a functional activity as well as pain during that functional activity. The findings of this study suggest that relaxing music can have a significant impact on pain, or the perception of pain, thus increasing functional abilities. Due to the small sample size and preliminary findings of this study further research would be beneficial in determining the effectiveness of the type of music.

Year: August, 2003

Chair/Reader: Denis Anson, Kim Alba Perry, Joe Cipriani

Spring - 2003

Title: The Functional Effects of Therapeutic Horseback Riding on Postural Control and Dynamic Sitting Posture

Authors: Heath, B., Myers, S. & Walker, T.

Abstract : The purpose of this study was to examine the functional effects of therapeutic horseback riding on postural control and dynamic sitting posture in fifteen children with cerebral palsy. These children underwent a pre-test and post-test before and after participating in a therapeutic horseback riding session. Participants were graded using the Modified Postural Assessment Scale (MPAS) (Jonsdottir, Fetter, and Kluzik, 1997). The MPAS grading form, which was created by the researchers, was used to record the children’s MPAS scores while reviewing the videotape of the children. The non-parametric Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to discover significant differences between pre-test and post-test scores for each of the two dependent variables. By providing evidence of the effectiveness of therapeutic horseback riding, therapeutic horseback riding programs can be further developed to become an important aspect of occupational therapy.

Year: May, 2003

Chair/Reader: Lalit Shah, Ellen McLaughlin

Publication/Presentation: Presented by: Shah, L., & Myers, S. at the 2003 POTA Annual Conference, Pittsburgh, Pa.

Accepted for presentation at the 2004 Annual Conference of the American Occupational Therapy Association, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Title: Altruistic Activity Patterns Among Nursing Home Residents

Authors: Faig, S., Ayrer, K., Brown, L., Johnson, N., & Cipriani, J.

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to explore patterns of altruistic expressions in nursing home residents. Understanding the continuity or discontinuity of occupational patterns can assist therapists when evaluating residents’ needs for meaningful engagement within their living environment. This qualitative study was conducted in two nursing homes and included eleven participants. There were sixteen altruistic activities identified by six or more of the participants as the most common activities engaged in prior to entering the nursing home. Upon entering the nursing home all participants’ altruistic activity patterns experienced a shift to some degree. All eleven participants identified immediate family and/or friends as the focus behind their activities, prior to and while residing in the nursing home. The results of this study suggest that a thorough understanding of how and why shifts occur for altruistic activities will add aid occupational therapists and other professionals working with the elderly population to develop meaningful interventions.

Year: May, 2003

Chair/Reader: Joe Cipriani, Gwen Bartolacci

Title: Effectiveness of Adaptive Grip Tools in Children with Down Syndrome

Authors: McCormick, B., Sammons, A., Rustay, C. & Jarolen, J.

Abstract: Influences of various grip tools were evaluated by measuring the tracing accuracy of children with Down Syndrome between the ages of 3-10. The four conditions that were included in this study were: 1) a standard #2 pencil, 2) a Triangular grip, 3) a Stetro grip, and 4) a Pencil grip. This study was a quasi-experimental repeated measures design in which each participant acted as their own control group. A map measurer was used to record the accuracy along a 24 inch peanut shape tracing pattern for each of the four conditions. A Friedman Test was used to evaluate the data and revealed no significant differences between tracing accuracy for the four conditions. However, a slight negative correlation was found between age and the Triangular grip and the Stetro grip, indicating that the skill in the use of these grips did not increase as age increased.

Year: May, 2003

Chair/Reader: Ellen McLaughlin , Mary Seamon

Title: Effects of Sensory Stimulation on Regressed Older Adults

Authors: Bell, K. N., Gilroy, M. A., Rasmus, M., Snellbaker, S.

Abstract: The purpose of this study is to expand on the Argenio et. al (2002) study to determine if a sensory stimulation protocol had effects on two regressed elderly nursing home residents’ performance in eight ADL tasks. Baseline measurements were recorded for seven days prior to the program to determine the subject’s current level of functioning. The program was implemented for four consecutive weeks, three times a week. An ABA design was used with a second follow-up phase. Binomial testing was done to determine statistical significance between the adjacent phases. The results showed statistically significant, but inconsistent improvement for one resident in the areas of personal hygiene, toileting, bed mobility, transfer and locomotion. Design flaws and lack of an adequate subject pool limited the ability to draw conclusions on whether using a sensory stimulation program can improve the occupational performance of regressed persons in institutional settings.

Year: May, 2003

Chair/Reader: Joe Cipriani, Molly Mika

Title: Gender Representation in the Occupational Therapy Literature: Analysis of American Journal of Occupational Therapy, from May 1998 to April 2003

Authors: Grant, E., Naples, S., Sims, B., Thomas, D. & Cipriani, J.

Abstract: The objective of this study was to review the last five years of the American Journal of Occupational Therapy (AJOT), May 1998 to April 2003, to determine gender representation as related to type of research paradigm used, age of participants, proportion of each gender within each study, and type of clinical conditions studied.

METHOD. The data was transcribed into table form for each article with data including the title and author of the article, research design, gender identification and number of participants, age, and clinical conditions if applicable.

RESULTS. Researchers found basic trends in relation to age, research paradigm used, percentage of males to females in each study, and clinical conditions according to gender representation.

CONCLUSION. Findings suggested a lack of research conducted on males in the well population, and the female population tended to be well researched in the condition of arthritis in comparison to other clinical conditions. There is a need for further research of males in the well population, especially using phenomenological research methods, as well as research on more varied clinical conditions for both genders.

Year: May, 2003

Chair/Reader: Joe Cipriani, Dawn Evans

Presentation: Accepted for presentation as a poster at the 2004 Annual Conference of the American Occupational Therapy Association, Minneapolis, Minnesota.
Title: Strategies to Improve Self Efficacy with Members of a Community Mental Health Clubhouse: A Framework for Lifestyle Redesign

Authors: Giancopoulos, L., Hollock, A., Mazurik, L., Shellhjammer, S., & Urban, K.

Abstract: Coming

Year: May, 2003

Chair/Reader: Gwen Bartolacci, T. Swartwood

Presentation/Publication: Paper presentation at the 2003 AOTA Annual Conference,Washington, DC. (Trad 03 grads with faculty member).
Title: Long-Term Efficiency of Morse Code vs. Head-Pointer Interface.

Authors: Glodek, M., Pfeiffer, R., Rubino, C., & Schwartz, P.

Abstract: Coming

Year: May, 2003

Chair/Reader: Denis Anson, Joe Cipriani

Presentation/Publication: Paper presented at the 2003 RESNA Annual Conference in Atlanta, GA. (Trad xx grads with faculty member).
Title: Women's Wheelchair basketball: the Meaning Behind the Experience

Authors: Harner, K., Nguyen, K., & Waering, C.

Abstract: Coming

Year: May, 2003

Chair/Reader: T. Swartwood, H. Speziale

Title: Influences of a Sensory-Based Activity Program on Interaction and Mastery for Children with Autism

Authors: Bass, J., Fagan, K., Ruckle, M., Robinson, B. & McLaughlin, E.

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of sensory-based activities on children with autism in an elementary school setting. In this quasi-experimental study, a repeated-measures design was utilized to ascertain the effect of the sensory-based program on five children with autism in an elementary school setting. Throughout a four week baseline phase followed by a four week intervention phase, the children were videotaped while engaging in fine motor tasks. During the baseline phase the children did not experience the sensory-based program, but during the intervention phase the children experienced the sensory-based program prior to completing the fine motor tasks. The activities were play-based in nature and were designed to assist in modulating sensory input. A typical intervention session consisted of one activity that provided proprioceptive input and one that provided vestibular input followed by fine motor tasks. The children’s performance was measured during baseline and intervention phases using the Behavior Rating Instrument for Autistic and other Atypical Children (BRIAAC). This assessment tool measured the socialization and mastery skill areas of their performance. Results were depicted using a celebration line. Overall, the majority of children’s mastery scores increased, while socialization scores decreased. The results of this study provide occupational therapists with possible positive effects of a sensory based program on mastery skills in an elementary school setting.

Year: May 2003

Chair/Reader: Ellen McLaughlin, Danielle Alder, Lalit Shah

Presentation/Publication: Presented as: Fagan, K., Crossman, B., Ruckle, M., & McLaughlin, E. Influences of a Sensory-Based Activity Program on Interaction and Mastery for Children with Autism. Poster presentation at the 2003 AOTA Annual Conference, Washington, DC.. (Trad 03 grads with faculty member).

Summer - 2003

Title: Patterns For Life: A Study of Young Children’s Ability to Use Patterned Switch Closures for Environmental Control

Authors: Cheryl Ames, Lynn Fulton, Megan Margolis, Maria Miller

Abstract: OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study was to determine the age at which children are able to use patterns of switch closures to produce desired responses in the environment.

METHOD. Fifty-two typically-developing children, between the ages of 2 and 8, were instructed to activate specific toys by pressing two large, colored switches in indicated patterns. Testing involved 1, 2, and 3-step patterns.

RESULTS. By age 4, most children had both the cognitive and motor capacity to generate specific patterns for control of their environment. By the age of 5, all of the children were 100% successful.

CONCLUSION. The results of this study indicate that by the age of 5, children have the cognitive ability to use patterns of switch closures to produce desired responses in the environment.

Year: Summer 2003

Chair/Reader: Denis Anson; Joe Cipriani